How did the Jews, after the capture of Jerusalem, organize themselves to lead their own life, that life which protects their faith while safeguarding their nationality? How were these sacred books formed, the Michnah and the Talmuds, a jurisprudence which appears to us arid and which has made them forget the interior religion, so comprehensive and so intense of the Prophets and the Psalms? To what dogmas is the faith of Israel attached nowadays, and, after centuries of waiting, what has become of that immense Messianic hope which permeates the whole of the Old Testament? What system of morality is professed by the Jew who lives side by side with us, and what is the cult practised by him in the privacy of his home or in the Synagogue?

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